High power graphite electrodes are widely used in electric arc furnace (EAF) and ladle furnace (LF) for steel making, ferroalloy production, yellow phosphorus and non-ferrous metal smelting and many other specialized applications.
The features of the high power graphite electrodes include a good thermal and electrical conductivity and a good resistance to thermal shock and compression. The graphite electrode has an anode surface area significantly larger than that of most other types of electrodes. Hence, it is able to dissipate heat faster, allowing higher current densities. Additionally, its powder-carbon core allows for a very low electrical resistivity and therefore very low losses.
High power graphite electrodes have high mechanical strength provided by their mixture of graphite with carbon materials and binder, which also ensures excellent dielectric properties. Thanks to its low coefficient of thermal expansion, it also has excellent thermal shock resistance and can withstand temperatures up to 2400°C. It also has an excellent bending strength and usually around one third of the normal flexural strength. Also, high power graphite electrodes are resistant to corrosion, wear and abrasion, so they usually have a long life.